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Periodontal Disease Status among Adults from South Africa—Prevalence and Effect of Smoking

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Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
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Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
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Division of Clinical Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
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Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
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SAMRC/CPUT/Cardiometabolic Health Research Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193662
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 29 September 2019
Periodontal diseases are among the six most prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide, constituting a burden for oral and general health. There is a shortage of epidemiological data on periodontal diseases in Africa. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to present the periodontal status and cotinine levels of a South African population of adults. This study included individuals living in the Belville South area. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth were recorded for each tooth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL) was recorded as the highest score per sextant. Cotinine levels were measured in ng/mL. A total of 951 individuals were included. More than one third of all subjects had BOP. Regarding pocket depth, over 50% of the subjects had shallow pockets (4–5 mm), and almost 6% had deep pockets. CAL ≥ 4 mm was present in 40.1% of the subjects. Males presented worse periodontal conditions than females. In total, 52.7% of the participants had serum cotinine levels of ≥15 ng/mL. Cotinine levels had no effect on periodontal variables. Periodontal diseases were highly prevalent, and periodontal conditions were worse in males. Preventive and restorative public health programs are required to improve oral health in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontal disease; non-communicable diseases; oral health periodontal disease; non-communicable diseases; oral health
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Chikte, U.; Pontes, C.C.; Karangwa, I.; Kimmie-Dhansay, F.; Erasmus, R.T.; Kengne, A.P.; Matsha, T.E. Periodontal Disease Status among Adults from South Africa—Prevalence and Effect of Smoking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3662.

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