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Fluoride Exposure Induces Inhibition of Sodium-and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) Enzyme Activity: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Public Health
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Chronic Fluoride Exposure and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183431
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Harmful Effects of Fluoride Exposure)
The continuous rise of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalent in the past few decades is causing an increase in public health and socioeconomic concern. A consensus suggests the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors in the ASD etiopathogenesis. Fluoride (F) is rarely recognized among the environmental risk factors of ASD, since the neurotoxic effects of F are not generally accepted. Our review aims to provide evidence of F neurotoxicity. We assess the risk of chronic F exposure in the ASD etiopathology and investigate the role of metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, immunoexcitotoxicity, and decreased melatonin levels. These symptoms have been observed both after chronic F exposure as well as in ASD. Moreover, we show that F in synergistic interactions with aluminum’s free metal cation (Al3+) can reinforce the pathological symptoms of ASD. This reinforcement takes place at concentrations several times lower than when acting alone. A high ASD prevalence has been reported from countries with water fluoridation as well as from endemic fluorosis areas. We suggest focusing the ASD prevention on the reduction of the F and Al3+ burdens from daily life. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; ASD prevalence; aluminum; endemic fluorosis; chronic fluoride exposure; immunoexcitotoxicity; neurotoxicity; socioeconomic status; water fluoridation autism spectrum disorder; ASD prevalence; aluminum; endemic fluorosis; chronic fluoride exposure; immunoexcitotoxicity; neurotoxicity; socioeconomic status; water fluoridation
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Strunecka, A.; Strunecky, O. Chronic Fluoride Exposure and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3431.

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