Our study is based on the hypothesis that the prevalence of malocclusions in children is higher in the mining areas from North-Western (NW) Romania than in other geographic areas. We also considered that the distribution of the different types of malocclusions can be correlated with environmental factors. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in children from the mining areas in NW Romania. Another purpose was to establish the influence of certain environmental factors such as gender, geographical area of origin, and ethnicity on the distribution of malocclusions in order to provide an epidemiological reference for the planning of preventive and treatment programs adapted to the particularity of the mining areas. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2015–2016. The study batch consisted of 960 children from the mining areas, aged 7–14 years, in the period of mixed dentition and early permanent dentition. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner, an orthodontic specialist (TBI), in order to avoid inter-operator bias. Occlusion was registered according to Bjoerk. Occlusal clinical signs were followed for the determination of malocclusions. Most children had malocclusions (93.5%). The percentage of anomalies was significantly higher in subjects from Rosia Montana, in girls, and in the Romanians. Data showed that Angle Class I was the most prevalent malocclusion (60.21%), followed by crowding (47.5%), midline shift (43.33%), and deep bite (28.65%). The independent association between ethnicity and total malocclusions shows that the Romanian subjects presented a 3.31 higher chance of developing malocclusions than the Romani ones. The presence of malocclusions was independently influenced by all the studied environmental factors, namely gender, geographical area, and ethnicity. Our results could be relevant for oral health policy-making, i.e., planning preventive and treatment measures of malocclusions, adapted to the peculiarity of the studied mining areas.
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