Next Article in Journal
Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Serovar Distribution and Co-Infections with Seven High-Risk HPV Types among Italian Women with a Recent History of Abnormal Cervical Cytology
Previous Article in Journal
Collaborative Workshops for Community Meaning-Making and Data Analyses: How Focus Groups Strengthen Data by Enhancing Understanding and Promoting Use
Previous Article in Special Issue
Establishment and Application of an Evaluation Model for Orchid Island Sustainable Tourism Development
Open AccessArticle

Nonlinear and Spatial Effects of Tourism on Carbon Emissions in China: A Spatial Econometric Approach

by 1 and 2,*
1
International Business School, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
2
School of Public Administration, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183353
Received: 18 August 2019 / Revised: 1 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
Reducing carbon emissions is crucial to the sustainable development of tourism. However, there are no consistent conclusions about the nexus between tourism and carbon emissions. Considering the possible nonlinear and spatial effects of tourism on carbon emissions, this paper employed spatial econometric models combined with quadratic terms of explanatory variables to explore the nexus between them using Chinese provincial panel data from 2003 to 2016. The main results are as follows: (1) There is a significant inverse U-shaped relationship between tourism development and carbon emissions. In the provinces whose tourism receipts are relatively low, the effects of tourism on carbon emissions are positive but decrease gradually as the tourism receipts increase and then shifts to negative and continues decreasing gradually when the tourism receipts beyond the critical value. (2) For the geographical proximity and industrial relevance, one province’s tourism development not only affects its carbon emissions but also affects its neighbors’ carbon emissions through spatial lag effect (indirect effect) which is also inverse U-shaped. (3) Carbon reduction policies, sustainable education, and transportation infrastructure all have significant moderating effects on the relationship between tourism and carbon emissions, but the moderating effect of the management efficiency of tourism is not statistically significant. Furthermore, improvements to the sustainable education and transportation infrastructure not only strengthen the direct negative effect of tourism on carbon emissions but also strengthen the indirect negative effect of tourism on carbon emissions. This study not only advances the existing literature but is also of considerable interest to policymakers. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonlinear effects; spatial lag effects; tourism industry; carbon emissions; spatial econometric approach nonlinear effects; spatial lag effects; tourism industry; carbon emissions; spatial econometric approach
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bi, C.; Zeng, J. Nonlinear and Spatial Effects of Tourism on Carbon Emissions in China: A Spatial Econometric Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3353.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop