Older construction workers are vulnerable to accident risks at work. Work behavior affects the occurrence of accidents at construction sites. This study aims to investigate the organizational and personal factors that underlie the safety behaviors of older construction workers considering their age-related characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, which involves 260 older construction workers (aged 50 and over), was conducted, and an integrative old-construction-worker safety behavior model (OSBM) was established on the basis of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Results showed that the OSBM provides a considerably good explanation of the safety behaviors of older construction workers. The explained variances for safety participation and compliance are 74.2% and 63.1%, respectively. Subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are two critical psychological drivers that proximally affect the safety behaviors of workers. Moreover, safety knowledge, management commitment, and aging expectation are the distal antecedents that significantly influence psychological drivers. This study proves the mediating role of psychological factors on predicting safety behaviors among older construction workers, thereby promoting an understanding of “how” and “why” their safety behaviors occur. Furthermore, the identified effects of several critical organizational and personal factors, particularly age-related factors, provide new insights into the safety behaviors of older construction workers.
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