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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Forest Resting Environments on Stress Using Virtual Reality

College of Architecture and Arts, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144, China
Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Beijing Municipal Education Commission, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Beijing Forest Well-being Planning and Design Research Co., Ltd., Beijing 100083, China
Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3263;
Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 1 September 2019 / Published: 5 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Therapies and Human Health)
To explore the effects of different types of forest environments for forest therapy, this study focused on forest resting environments. Seven representative forest resting environments found in field research in Beijing were used as independent variables and were shown to subjects by a virtual reality (VR) video. Stress level was used as the dependent variable, and blood pressure, heart rate, salivary amylase, and the Brief Profile of Mood States (BPOMS) were used as physiological and psychological indicators. A between-subjects design was used in the experiment. A total of 96 subjects were randomly assigned to each environment type, and only one type of forest resting environment was observed. Through the relevant sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance, the pre- and post-test data of the indicators were analyzed. This study found that all the seven different types of forest resting environments can produce stress relief effects to some extent. Different types of forest resting environments have different effects on relieving stress. The most natural environment does not have the most significant effect on stress relief. A water landscape has a positive effect on the relief of stress. The conclusions of this study are conducive to the better use of the forest environment for forest therapy services. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest; resting environment; stress; water; forest therapy forest; resting environment; stress; water; forest therapy
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Wang, X.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, B.; Chiang, Y. The Influence of Forest Resting Environments on Stress Using Virtual Reality. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3263.

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