Next Article in Journal
Prevalence and Predictors of Violence Victimization and Violent Behavior among Youths: A Population-Based Study in Serbia
Next Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Forest Resting Environments on Stress Using Virtual Reality
Previous Article in Journal
The Validity of Google Trends Search Volumes for Behavioral Forecasting of National Suicide Rates in Ireland
Previous Article in Special Issue
Experiences of the Urban Green Local Environment as a Factor for Well-Being among Adults: An Exploratory Qualitative Study in Southern Sweden
Open AccessArticle

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Nature-Based Mindfulness: Effects of Moving Mindfulness Training into an Outdoor Natural Setting

1
Department of Geoscience and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, C 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
2
Department of Landscape Architecture and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, N 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Research Center for Health and Welfare Technology, VIA University College, N 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
5
Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, C 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173202
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Therapies and Human Health)
Research has proven that both mindfulness training and exposure to nature have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review quantitative studies of mindfulness interventions conducted in nature (nature-based mindfulness), and to analyze the effects through meta-analyses. Electronic searches revealed a total of 25 studies to be included, examining 2990 participants. Three analyses were conducted: Nature-based mindfulness interventions evaluated as open trials (k = 13), nature-based mindfulness compared with groups in non-active control conditions (k = 5), and nature-based mindfulness compared with similar interventions but without contact with nature (k = 7). The overall combined psychological, physiological, and interpersonal effects from pre- to post-intervention were statistically significant and of medium size (g = 0.54, p < 0.001). Moderation analyses showed that natural environments characterized as forests/wild nature obtained larger numerical effects than environments characterized as gardens/parks, as did informal mindfulness compared with formal mindfulness. The small number of studies included, as well as the heterogeneity and generally low quality of the studies, must be taken into consideration when the results are interpreted. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017065639. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature contact; mindfulness; meditation; nature-based therapy; intervention nature contact; mindfulness; meditation; nature-based therapy; intervention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Djernis, D.; Lerstrup, I.; Poulsen, D.; Stigsdotter, U.; Dahlgaard, J.; O’Toole, M. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Nature-Based Mindfulness: Effects of Moving Mindfulness Training into an Outdoor Natural Setting. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop