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Occurrence and Toxicological Risk Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticides from Suburban Soils of Kenya

1,2,3 and 1,4,*
1
College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162937
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract

The use of organic chemicals in agriculture and manufacturing has raised concerns about the dangers of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the environment. By examining OCPs occurrence in the suburban soils from Kenya, this study revealed the distribution, concentrations, and the threat posed to the environment and human health. A gas chromatography electron capture detector was used to test the pesticides. The hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) studied in soils of Kapsabet, Voi, and Nyeri towns showed concentrations ranging from 0.03–52.7, 0.06–22.3, and 0.24–24.3 ng/g respectively. The highest concentration of HCHs was in Kapsabet (0.03–48.1 ng/g), whereas the highest DDTs concentration was in Voi (n.d.–15.5 ng/g). Source identification revealed OCPs pollution originated from recent usage of DDT pesticides to control insect-borne diseases and from the use of lindane in agriculture. Correlation test revealed that total organic carbon influenced the presence of pesticides in the soils. The enantiomeric ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH were <3 indicating the use of lindane while the ratios of DDE/DDT were <1 suggesting recent input of DDT. The cancer risk assessment showed values close to the set risk level of 10−6, suggesting the likelihood of exposure to cancer was not low enough, and control measures need to be established. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer risk; concentrations; contamination; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH); organochlorine pesticides (OCP) cancer risk; concentrations; contamination; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH); organochlorine pesticides (OCP)
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Mungai, T.M.; Wang, J. Occurrence and Toxicological Risk Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticides from Suburban Soils of Kenya. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2937.

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