Cognitive impairment is more prevalent in heart failure (HF) patients. Anemia can influence cognitive ability and is likely more prevalent in elderly patients with HF. However, there are limited data on the association of anemia with cognitive impairment in elderly HF patients. This study aimed to identify the association between anemia and cognitive impairment in elderly HF patients. This secondary data analysis included 181 patients aged 60 years or older with HF. Patients were categorized into an anemic or non-anemic group based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We assessed the cognitive function using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) at the time of enrollment. The prevalence of anemia and cognitive impairment in older patients with HF was the same at 35.4%. The main finding of the multiple logistic regression indicated that compared to a non-anemic status, anemia increased the risk of cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR) = 4.268, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.898–9.593, p
< 0.001). Healthcare providers should recognize the value of the significance of early assessment of anemic status and cognitive function following HF. A prospective cohort study should identify the pathway of the association between anemia and incidence of cognitive impairment.
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