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Open AccessArticle

An Empirical Analysis of Delayed Monthly Bill Payments as an Early Risk Factor of Increased Suicidal Behavior

1
Department of Health Care Policy Research, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Sejong 30147, Korea
2
Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162929
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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PDF [275 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]

Abstract

This study examines the potential of delayed monthly bill payments as a predictor of suicidal behavior in South Korea with the highest suicide rate among developed countries. Using the Korea Welfare Panel Study, multivariable logistic regressions examined the association between suicide ideation/attempts and the frequency of late payments on utility bills or National Health Insurance premium during last three years. Confounding factors such as past depression and suicide ideation/attempts history were adjusted for. Among 10,988 individuals, 2.7% reported suicide ideation and 0.11% attempted suicide in the past year, while 7.1% reported they paid late once or more during the last three years. Adults with two or more delayed payment had 2.32 times increased odds of suicidal ideation and 10.99 times increased odds of suicide attempts, compared to having no late payments. Adjusting for other socio-economic characteristics rarely changed the relationship between late payments and suicide ideation/attempts (for suicidal ideation, OR = 2.11; for suicide attempts: OR = 7.44), suggesting the independent effect of late payments on suicide behavior. With these findings, it can be suggested that late payment is an important factor, preemptively signaling suicide behavior with serious consequences in health and life. View Full-Text
Keywords: suicidal behavior; suicidal ideation; suicide attempts; late payments; financial hardship; South Korea suicidal behavior; suicidal ideation; suicide attempts; late payments; financial hardship; South Korea
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, S.; You, M. An Empirical Analysis of Delayed Monthly Bill Payments as an Early Risk Factor of Increased Suicidal Behavior. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2929.

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