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Open AccessArticle

Are Opportunities Being Missed? Burden of HIV, STI and TB, and Unawareness of HIV among African Migrants

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1600-560 Lisboa, Portugal
Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal
GAT—Grupo de Ativistas em Tratamentos, 1000-228 Lisboa, Portugal
AJPAS—Associação de Intervenção Comunitária, Desenvolvimento Social e de Saúde, 2700-327 Amadora, Portugal
Ser + - Associação Portuguesa para a Prevenção e Desafio à Sida, 2750-783 Cascais, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2710;
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion for Sexual Health and Prevention of HIV)
Sub-Saharan African migrants (SSAMs) have been disproportionately affected by infectious disease burden. We aimed to identify correlates of HIV, past sexually transmitted infection (STI) and past Tuberculosis infection (TB), as well as examine HIV seropositivity unawareness and testing history among SSAMs. A venue-based sample of 790 SSAMs completed a cross-sectional biobehavioral survey on sexual practices, HIV testing and self-reported infectious diseases; an HIV rapid test was offered. Overall, 5.4% of participants were HIV-positive and 16.7% reported a past STI. Odds of being HIV positive or having a past STI were higher among participants with low socioeconomic status and who experienced violence from a partner. Increased odds of having a past STI were also found among long-term migrants and those who reported sexual risk behaviors. In total, 4.1% of participants had TB in the past; these were more likely male and HIV positive. Unawareness of HIV-positive status was notably high (35%). Half of the participants had never been tested for HIV before, including over a third of those who had STI or TB in the past. Efforts are needed to reduce missed opportunities for HIV/STIs prevention and uptake of HIV testing among SSAMs through more integrated care, while addressing social determinants of infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: sub-Saharan African migrants; HIV; STI; TB; unawareness of HIV; HIV testing sub-Saharan African migrants; HIV; STI; TB; unawareness of HIV; HIV testing
MDPI and ACS Style

Dias, S.; Gama, A.; Tavares, A.M.; Reigado, V.; Simões, D.; Carreiras, E.; Mora, C.; Pinto Ferreira, A. Are Opportunities Being Missed? Burden of HIV, STI and TB, and Unawareness of HIV among African Migrants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2710.

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