Next Article in Journal
An Umbrella Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Interventions Aimed at Decreasing Food Prices to Increase Food Quality
Previous Article in Journal
Reliability of the 30 s Chair Stand Test in Women with Fibromyalgia
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Factors Correlating to the Development of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Drug Users—Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Scientific Research and Information Management, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
2
Department of Immunization planning, Zhejiang provincial key laboratory of infectious disease vaccine and prevention and control. 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132345
Received: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
  |  
PDF [4261 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Hepatitis C remains a significant public health threat. However, the main routes of transmission have changed since the early 1990s. Currently, drug use is the main source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and some measures have been successively implemented and additional studies have been published. However, the factors correlating with HCV infection failed to clearly define. Our study pooled the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and analyzed sensitivity by searching data in the PubMed, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and EBSCO databases. Publication bias was determined by Egger’s test. In our meta-analysis, HCV-infected and non-HCV-infected patients from 49 studies were analyzed. The pooled ORs with 95% CIs for study factors were as follows: Injecting drug use 10.11 (8.54, 11.97); sharing needles and syringes 2.24 (1.78, 2.83); duration of drug use >5 years 2.39 (1.54, 3.71); unemployment 1.50 (1.22, 1.85); commercial sexual behavior 1.00 (0.73, 1.38); married or cohabiting with a regular partner 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), and sexual behavior without a condom 1.72 (1.07, 2.78). This study found that drug users with histories of injecting drug use, sharing needles and syringes, drug use duration of >5 years, and unemployment, were at increased risk of HCV infection. Our findings indicate that sterile needles and syringes should be made available to ensure safe injection. In view of that, methadone maintenance treatment can reduce or put an end to risky drug-use behaviors, and should be scaled up further, thereby reducing HCV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug use; hepatitis C virus; risk factor; meta-analysis drug use; hepatitis C virus; risk factor; meta-analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, B.; Cai, G.F.F.; Lv, H.K.K.; Xu, S.F.F.; Wang, Z.T.T.; Jiang, Z.G.G.; Hu, C.G.G.; Chen, Y.D.D. Factors Correlating to the Development of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Drug Users—Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2345.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top