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Open AccessArticle

Flèche versus Lunge as the Optimal Footwork Technique in Fencing

Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, 45-758 Opole, Poland
School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2315;
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
The objective of the study reported in this paper involved identifying the fencing attack (flèche versus lunge) that provides greater effectiveness in a real competition. Two hypotheses are presented in the study. The first hypothesis involves the greater effectiveness of the flèche with regard to bioelectric muscular tension, and the second hypothesis involves the reduction of movement time of the flèche. Therefore, analyses were conducted by the application of EMG (electromyography) signal, ground reaction forces, and parameters representing sensorimotor responses (RT—reaction time and MT—movement time). This study included six world-leading female épée fencers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.2 years). Throughout the procedure, the subjects performed flèche and lunge touches at the command of the coach based on visual stimuli. The experimental results indicated the greater effectiveness of the flèche compared with the lunge with regard to increases in EMG values (p = 0.027) in the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles and decreases in the duration of the movement phase (p = 0.049) and vertical force of the rear leg (p = 0.028). In conclusion, higher levels of EMG and ground reaction forces were generated during the flèche compared with the lunge, which promotes an improvement in the explosive force and contributes to a reduction in the movement phase of the entire offensive action. View Full-Text
Keywords: fencing fleche; fencing lunge; sensorimotor responses; EMG; ground reaction forces fencing fleche; fencing lunge; sensorimotor responses; EMG; ground reaction forces
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Borysiuk, Z.; Markowska, N.; Konieczny, M.; Kręcisz, K.; Błaszczyszyn, M.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Knechtle, B.; Pakosz, P. Flèche versus Lunge as the Optimal Footwork Technique in Fencing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2315.

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