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Article

Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Paediatric Stool and Water Samples in the Northwest Province, South Africa

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Department of Life and Consumer science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Corner Christiaan De wet and Pioneer Avenue, 1724 Florida park Roodepoort, Gauteng 1709, South Africa
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Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
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Department of Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, 37 Nind Street, Doornfontein, Gauteng 2094, South Africa
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Water Research Commission, Lynnwood Bridge Office Park, Bloukrans Building, 4 Daventry Street, Lynnwood Manor, Pretoria 0081, South Africa
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Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, Molotlegi Street, Ga-Rankuwa, Pretoria, Gauteng, P.O Box 60, Medunsa 0204, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122205
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter could adversely affect treatment outcomes, especially in children. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility profiles, virulence potentials and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. from paediatric and water samples in the North West Province, South Africa. Overall, 237 human and 20 water isolates were identified using culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using the disk diffusion method. Gradient strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of each antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance (gryA, tetO and 23S rRNA 2075G and 2074C) and virulence (cadF and ciaB) genes were also investigated using PCR. A phylogenetic tree to ascertain the clonality between water and clinical isolates was constructed using MEGA 7. Overall, 95% (water) and 64.7% (human) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic tested. The highest resistance was against clarithromycin (95%) for water and ampicillin (60.7%) for human isolates. The 23S rRNA 2075G/2074C mutation was the most expressed resistance gene. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed eight intermixed clades within water and human Campylobacter isolates. This study suggests the possible circulation of potentially pathogenic antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in the Northwest Province, South Africa with drinking water being a possible vector for disease transmission in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Campylobacter spp.; paediatric diarrhoea; antibiotic susceptibility profile; resistance genes; virulence genes; phylogenetic analysis; household drinking water Campylobacter spp.; paediatric diarrhoea; antibiotic susceptibility profile; resistance genes; virulence genes; phylogenetic analysis; household drinking water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chukwu, M.O.; Abia, A.L.K.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; Obi, L.; Dewar, J.B. Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Paediatric Stool and Water Samples in the Northwest Province, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122205

AMA Style

Chukwu MO, Abia ALK, Ubomba-Jaswa E, Obi L, Dewar JB. Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Paediatric Stool and Water Samples in the Northwest Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(12):2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chukwu, Martina O., Akebe L.K. Abia, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Lawrence Obi, and John B. Dewar 2019. "Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Paediatric Stool and Water Samples in the Northwest Province, South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 12: 2205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122205

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