Urban forms and functions have critical impacts on urban heat islands (UHIs). The concept of a “local climate zone” (LCZ) provides a standard and objective protocol for characterizing urban forms and functions, which has been used to link urban settings with UHIs. However, only a few structure types and surface cover properties are included under the same climate background or only one or two time scales are considered with a high spatial resolution. This study assesses multi-temporal land surface temperature (LST) characteristics across 18 different LCZ types in Beijing, China, from July 2017 to June 2018. A geographic information system-based method is employed to classify LCZs based on five morphological and coverage indicators derived from a city street map and Landsat images, and a spatiotemporal fusion model is adopted to generate hourly 100-m LSTs by blending Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and FengYun-2F LSTs. Then, annual and diurnal cycle parameters and heat island and cool island (HI or CI) frequency are linked to LCZs at annual, seasonal, monthly, and diurnal scales. Results indicate that: (1) the warmest zones are compact and mid and low-rise built-up areas, while the coolest zones are water and vegetated types; (2) compact and open high-rise built-up areas and vegetated types have seasonal thermal patterns but with different causes; (3) diurnal temperature ranges are the highest for compact and large low-rise settings but the lowest for water and dense or scattered trees; and (4) HIs are the most frequent summertime and daytime events, while CIs occur primarily during winter days, making them more or less frequent for open or compact and high- or low-rise built-up areas. Overall, the distinguishable LSTs or UHIs between LCZs are closely associated with the structure and coverage properties. Factors such as geolocation, climate, and layout also interfere with the thermal behavior. This study provides comprehensive information on how different urban forms and functions are related to LST variations at different time scales, which supports urban thermal regulation through urban design.
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