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Curtailing Lead Aerosols: Effects of Primary Prevention on Declining Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead in Metropolitan New Orleans

1
Department of Pharmacology, Tulane School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Ave. 8683, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2
Lead Lab. Inc. New Orleans, LA 70119, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122068
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract

After decades of accumulation of lead aerosols in cities from additives in gasoline, in 1975 catalytic converters (which are ruined by lead) became mandatory on all new cars. By 1 January 1986 the rapid phase-down banned most lead additives. The study objective is to review temporal changes of environmental lead and children’s blood lead in communities of metropolitan New Orleans. In 2001, a soil lead survey of 287 census tracts of metropolitan New Orleans was completed. In August–September 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita storm surges flooded parts of the city with sediment-loaded water. In April–June 2006, 46/287 (16%) of the original census tracts were selected for resurvey. A third survey of 44/46 (15%) census tracts was completed in 2017. The census tract median soil lead and children’s median blood lead decreased across surveys in both flooded and unflooded areas. By curtailing a major urban source of lead aerosols, children’s lead exposure diminished, lead loading of soil decreased, and topsoil lead declined. Curtailing lead aerosols is essential for primary prevention. For the sake of children’s and ultimately societal health and welfare, the long-term habitability of cities requires terminating all remaining lead aerosols and cleanup of legacy-lead that persists in older inner-city communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood lead decline; Cochrane collaboration; soil lead decline; mapping soil lead and blood lead; tetraethyl lead; topsoil blood lead decline; Cochrane collaboration; soil lead decline; mapping soil lead and blood lead; tetraethyl lead; topsoil
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Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.T. Curtailing Lead Aerosols: Effects of Primary Prevention on Declining Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead in Metropolitan New Orleans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2068.

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