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Article

Farm Machine Use and Pesticide Expenditure in Maize Production: Health and Environment Implications

1
School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
School of Business, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
3
Food Safety Research Base of Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
4
College of Economics & Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101808
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
Although chemical pesticide use has increased agricultural productivity, it has caused adverse effects on human health and the environment. For example, pesticide exposure may result in the incidence of a human health condition (e.g., heart disease, immune disorders, cancer, and damaged skin) and it can pollute air, water, and soil conditions and damage biodiversity. Mitigating the negative externalities associated with pesticide use is essential to improve human health and environmental performance. In this study, we are trying to explore whether farm machine use reduces pesticide expenditure by analyzing farm household survey data collected from 493 maize farmers in China. An endogenous switching regression model is employed to address the sample selection bias issue associated with voluntary farm machine use. The empirical results reveal that farm machine use exerts a negative and statistically significant impact on pesticide expenditure. The findings highlight the important role of farm machines in helping reduce pesticide expenditure, which is, in turn, beneficial for improving human health conditions and environmental performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: farm machine use; pesticide expenditure; ESR; China farm machine use; pesticide expenditure; ESR; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Zhou, X. Farm Machine Use and Pesticide Expenditure in Maize Production: Health and Environment Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101808

AMA Style

Zhang J, Wang J, Zhou X. Farm Machine Use and Pesticide Expenditure in Maize Production: Health and Environment Implications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(10):1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101808

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xiaoshi. 2019. "Farm Machine Use and Pesticide Expenditure in Maize Production: Health and Environment Implications" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 10: 1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101808

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