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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010058

Environmental, Individual and Personal Goal Influences on Older Adults’ Walking in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

1
Department of Built Environment, Aalto University, P.O. BOX. 14400, 00076 Aalto, Finland
2
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract

Physical activity is a fundamental factor in healthy ageing, and the built environment has been linked to individual health outcomes. Understanding the linkages between older adult’s walking and the built environment are key to designing supportive environments for active ageing. However, the variety of different spatial scales of human mobility has been largely overlooked in the environmental health research. This study used an online participatory mapping method and a novel modelling of individual activity spaces to study the associations between both the environmental and the individual features and older adults’ walking in the environments where older adult’s actually move around. Study participants (n = 844) aged 55+ who live in Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland reported their everyday errand points on a map and indicated which transport mode they used and how frequently they accessed the places. Respondents walking trips were drawn from the data and the direct and indirect effects of the personal, psychological as well as environmental features on older adults walking were examined. Respondents marked on average, six everyday errand points and walked for transport an average of 20 km per month. Residential density and the density of walkways, public transit stops, intersections and recreational sports places were significantly and positively associated with older adult’s walking for transport. Transit stop density was found having the largest direct effect to older adults walking. Built environment had an independent effect on older adults walking regardless of individual demographic or psychological features. Education and personal goals related to physical activities had a direct positive, and income a direct negative, effect on walking. Gender and perceived health had an indirect effect on walking, which was realized through individuals’ physical activity goals. View Full-Text
Keywords: walking; active travel; ageing; physical environment; personal projects; activity space; Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) walking; active travel; ageing; physical environment; personal projects; activity space; Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS)
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Laatikainen, T.E.; Haybatollahi, M.; Kyttä, M. Environmental, Individual and Personal Goal Influences on Older Adults’ Walking in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 58.

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