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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010152

Bisphenol A Exposure and Sperm ACHE Hydroxymethylation in Men

1
Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation of NPFPC, SIPPR, IRD, Fudan University, Shanghai 200237, China
2
Shanghai Tongshu Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200237, China
3
Division of Research, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland CA 94612, USA
4
School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200237, China
The authors contributed equally to the publication.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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Abstract

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to impact human sperm quality. The epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effect remain unknown. The acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene is a sperm-expressed gene encoding the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase and participates in the apoptosis of cells, including sperm. This study aimed to examine whether BPA exposure is associated with the hydroxymethylation level of the sperm ACHE gene. A total of 157 male factory workers were studied, among whom 74 had BPA exposure in the workplace (BPA exposure group) and 83 had no BPA exposure in the workplace (control group). Urine samples were collected for BPA measurement and semen samples were collected to assay for ACHE hydroxymethylation. Sperm ACHE hydroxymethylation level was higher in the BPA exposure group (p = 0.041) compared to the control group. When subjects were categorized according to tertiles of detected BPA level, higher ACHE hydroxymethylation levels were observed for the lowest, middle, and top tertiles compared to those with BPA below the limit of detection (LOD). In a linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders, a positive linear association between urine BPA concentration and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) rate of the sperm ACHE gene was observed, although the association did not reach statistical significance in all categories after being stratified by the BPA tertile. In conclusion, 5hmC of the sperm ACHE gene was positively associated with BPA exposure, which may provide supportive evidence for BPA’s effects on male fertility or other health endpoints. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A; ACHE; DNA hydroxymethylation; sperm bisphenol A; ACHE; DNA hydroxymethylation; sperm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Song, X.; Miao, M.; Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Tian, Y.; Liang, H.; Li, R.; Yuan, W. Bisphenol A Exposure and Sperm ACHE Hydroxymethylation in Men. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 152.

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