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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092006

Surveying Alcohol Outlet Density in Four Neighborhoods of Beirut Lebanon: Implications for Future Research and National Policy

1
Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon
2
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon
3
Department of Geology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon
4
Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon
5
Department of Health Management and Policy, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon
6
Department of Community and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract

Underage drinking among youth in Lebanon is increasing. Regulating availability is one of the best buy policies recommended by the World Health Organization. To quantitatively document the current status of alcohol availability to youth in Lebanon, we used GPS technology to survey alcohol outlet density in four highly populated neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon, and to estimate their proximity to educational institutions. The density of alcohol outlets ranged from 18.30 to 80.95 per km2 (average of 39.6 alcohol outlets/km2). The highest number of total alcohol outlets was in the “Hamra & Jamiaa” area, which includes one of the largest private universities in the country. Thirteen out of 109 (12%) alcohol outlets (on and off-premise) were located less 100 m away from educational institutions, in violation of the current licensing law. None of the off-premise and the majority (94%) of on-premise alcohol outlets displayed the “no sale for <18” sign. Findings were indicative of an environment conducive to increased access and availability of alcohol among youth in Lebanon probably attributed to the prevailing weak alcohol policies and their enforcement. Systematic collection and reporting of alcohol outlet densities is critical to understand the alcogenic environment and guide local harm reduction policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: GIS (geographic information systems); alcohol; youth; alcohol density; WHO best buys; alcohol availability; Lebanon; Beirut GIS (geographic information systems); alcohol; youth; alcohol density; WHO best buys; alcohol availability; Lebanon; Beirut
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Nakkash, R.; Ghandour, L.A.; Anouti, S.; Nicolas, J.; Chalak, A.; Yassin, N.; Afifi, R. Surveying Alcohol Outlet Density in Four Neighborhoods of Beirut Lebanon: Implications for Future Research and National Policy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2006.

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