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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091981

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Risk of Cancer in Never Smokers: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

1
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu 41404, Korea
2
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu 41944, Korea
3
Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu 41944, Korea
4
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu 41944, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

This is first meta-analysis to evaluate cancer risk associated with secondhand smoking across all cancers. A literature search was conducted for articles published before June 2014 on Pubmed, SCOPUS, Cochrane library, and CINAHL, and 40 articles on secondhand smoke and the prevalence of cancer among never smokers were selected for final analysis as per the inclusion criteria. Of the 40 articles, 27 were case-control studies and 13 were prospective cohort studies. With respect to overall cancer risk, odds ratio (OR) involving never smokers with significant exposure to secondhand smoke compared to never smokers without such exposure was 1.163 (95%CI 1.058–1.279). Subgroup meta-analyses by study design showed significant positive associations for both case-control studies and prospective cohort studies (OR 1.165, 95%CI 1.029–1.320; and OR 1.160, 95%CI 1.002–1.343, respectively). The association was stronger in the case of females (OR 1.253, 95%CI 1.142–1.374), lung cancer (OR 1.245, 95%CI 1.026–1.511), and breast cancer (OR 1.235, 95%CI 1.102–1.385). Secondhand smoking may increase the overall risk of cancer for never smokers, particularly lung and breast cancer, and especially in women. Strict implementation of smoking cessation programs should be encouraged, not only to reduce active smoking but also to limit exposure to secondhand smoke. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco smoke pollution; secondhand smoking; passive smoking; cancer; neoplasm; meta-analysis tobacco smoke pollution; secondhand smoking; passive smoking; cancer; neoplasm; meta-analysis
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Kim, A.-S.; Ko, H.-J.; Kwon, J.-H.; Lee, J.-M. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Risk of Cancer in Never Smokers: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1981.

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