Next Article in Journal
How Does Emotional Intelligence Make One Feel Better at Work? The Mediational Role of Work Engagement
Previous Article in Journal
Pre-Service Teachers’ Intervention in School Bullying Episodes with Special Education Needs Students: A Research in Italian and Greek Samples
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091907

Evaluation by the Ames Assay of the Mutagenicity of UV Filters Using Benzophenone and Benzophenone-1

1
School of Energy & Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Taihu Lake Water Environment Engineering Research Center (Wuxi), Southeast University, Wuxi 214000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1026 KB, uploaded 2 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Ultraviolet absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used in personal care products for protecting human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment during production and consumption processes, little is known about their genotoxicity effects. Our previous studies have shown that benzophenone-type UV filters exhibited acute toxicity on three species of aquatic organisms. Mutagenesis by benzophenone (BP) and benzophenone-1(BP-1) was tested in the present study by the Salmonella typhimurium/reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). All the positive reverse mutations occurred in the absence of the S9 liver extract system for both chemicals. From BP, positive mutation effects on the TA102 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate were detected. From BP-1, positive mutation effects on the TA97 strain at doses of 0.05 μg/plate and 0.5 μg/plate, and on the TA100 strain at a dose of 0.5 μg/plate, were detected. A mixture of BP and BP-1 exhibited mutagenicity on the TA97 and TA100 strains. For the TA97 strain, the positive mutation results were detected at 10% and 50% of the mixture. For the TA100 strain, the results were detected when the mixture was at 5% and 10%. In the mixture at 5%, the concentrations of BP and BP-1 were 3.5 μg/plate and 14 μg/plate, respectively. In the 10% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 7 μg/plate and 28 μg/plate, respectively. In the 50% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 35 μg/plate and 140 μg/plate, respectively. The mixture test results suggested that there was antagonism in mutagenicity between BP and BP-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV filters; benzophenone; benzophenone-1; mutagenicity; genotoxicity; Ames assay UV filters; benzophenone; benzophenone-1; mutagenicity; genotoxicity; Ames assay
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, W.-Q.; Duan, H.-X.; Pei, Z.-T.; Xu, R.-R.; Qin, Z.-T.; Zhu, G.-C.; Sun, L.-W. Evaluation by the Ames Assay of the Mutagenicity of UV Filters Using Benzophenone and Benzophenone-1. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1907.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top