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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081756

The Seasonality of Nitrite Concentrations in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System

1
Department of Built Environment, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Department of Mathematics and Systems Analysis, Aalto University, School of Science, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Faculty of Technology, Satakunta University of Applied Sciences, 26101 Rauma, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

We studied the seasonal variation of nitrite exposure in a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) with monochloramine disinfection in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. In Finland, tap water is the main source of drinking water, and thus the nitrite in tap water increases nitrite exposure. Our data included both the obligatory monitoring and a sampling campaign data from a sampling campaign. Seasonality was evaluated by comparing a nitrite time series to temperature and by calculating the seasonal indices of the nitrite time series. The main drivers of nitrite seasonality were the temperature and the water age. We observed that with low water ages (median: 6.7 h) the highest nitrite exposure occurred during the summer months, and with higher water ages (median: 31 h) during the winter months. With the highest water age (190 h), nitrite concentrations were the lowest. At a low temperature, the high nitrite concentrations in the winter were caused by the decelerated ammonium oxidation. The dominant reaction at low water ages was ammonium oxidation into nitrite and, at high water ages, it was nitrite oxidation into nitrate. These results help to direct monitoring appropriately to gain exact knowledge of nitrite exposure. Also, possible future process changes and additional disinfection measures can be designed appropriately to minimize extra nitrite exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrite; disinfection by-product; drinking water distribution systems; seasonality nitrite; disinfection by-product; drinking water distribution systems; seasonality
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Rantanen, P.-L.; Mellin, I.; Keinänen-Toivola, M.M.; Ahonen, M.; Vahala, R. The Seasonality of Nitrite Concentrations in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1756.

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