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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081757

Protect Your Sleep When Work is Calling: How Work-Related Smartphone Use During Non-Work Time and Sleep Quality Impact Next-Day Self-Control Processes at Work

1
Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
2
Work and Organizational Psychology Department, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Occupational Safety and Health)
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Abstract

In view of the rapid development of information and communication technologies, the present study sheds light on how work-related smartphone use during non-work time affects employees’ subsequent working day. Specifically, we examine work-related smartphone use and sleep quality as moderators of next-day self-control processes at work. Theorizing that work-related smartphone use and self-control demands deplete a common limited regulatory resource, we suggest a strengthening two-way interaction between work-related smartphone use during non-work time and next-day self-control demands at work in predicting employees’ ego depletion at work. Moreover, in a three-way interaction, we analyze whether this interaction depends on employees’ sleep quality, assuming that when intensive work-related smartphone use is followed by high-quality sleep, the taxed regulatory resource can replenish overnight. Results from our diary study covering 10 working days (n = 63) indicate that after evenings with high work-related smartphone use, employees experience disproportionate levels of ego depletion when dealing with self-control demands at work. Sleep quality, however, attenuates this interaction. In cases of high sleep quality, next-day self-control processes at work are no longer affected by work-related smartphone use. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for employees and employers regarding work-related smartphone use and the relevance of sleep in replenishing drained resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: daily diary study; ego depletion; self-control; sleep; spillover; three-way interaction; work-related smartphone use daily diary study; ego depletion; self-control; sleep; spillover; three-way interaction; work-related smartphone use
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Gombert, L.; Konze, A.-K.; Rivkin, W.; Schmidt, K.-H. Protect Your Sleep When Work is Calling: How Work-Related Smartphone Use During Non-Work Time and Sleep Quality Impact Next-Day Self-Control Processes at Work. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1757.

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