Next Article in Journal
The Overlooked Burden of Food Insecurity among Asian Americans: Results from the California Health Interview Survey
Next Article in Special Issue
Relationship between Problematic Internet Use, Sleep Problems, and Oral Health in Korean Adolescents: A National Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Community Resilience Learning Collaborative and Research Network (C-LEARN): Study Protocol with Participatory Planning for a Randomized, Comparative Effectiveness Trial
Open AccessArticle

Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis

Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081685
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
In southwestern Sydney the timing of introduction of formula and solids may be associated with risk of childhood overweight or obesity, and this may vary by age at breastfeeding cessation during first year. We included 346 infants from southwestern Sydney using the longitudinal study for Australian children (LSAC), who at baseline were singleton, full term, and normal weight births. The outcome risk of overweight or obesity was measured at every two-year interval of children aged 0 or 1 year at baseline until they reached age 10 or 11, defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Age at introduction to formula or solids was dichotomized at four months. We used mixed effects logistic regression for performing all analyses with and without adjusting for mother’s BMI, age during pregnancy, and social disadvantage index. Missing data were estimated using multivariate normal imputation having 25 imputations. The odds of overweight or obesity were significantly higher among infants introduced to formula or solids at ≤4 months compared to those introduced at >4 months in both unadjusted (odds ratio = 2.3262, p = 0.023) and adjusted (odds ratio = 1.9543, p = 0.0475) analyses. The odds of overweight or obesity when age at formula or solids introduction was held fixed at ≤4 months, increased significantly (odds ratio = 2.0856, p = 0.0215) for children stopping breastfeeding at age ≤4 months compared to >4 months. Thus, increasing the prevalence of breast-feeding without any formula or solids to 4–6 months in southwest Sydney should be a worthwhile public health measure. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood obesity; infant feeding factors; southwestern Sydney childhood obesity; infant feeding factors; southwestern Sydney
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mannan, H. Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1685.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop