Next Article in Journal
Cost and Threshold Analysis of the FinishIt Campaign to Prevent Youth Smoking in the United States
Previous Article in Journal
Meta-Prediction of MTHFR Gene Polymorphism and Air Pollution on the Risks of Congenital Heart Defects Worldwide: A Transgenerational Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Coffee Drinking and Associated Factors in an Elderly Population in Spain

1
Department of Public Health, History of Medicine and Gynecology, University Miguel Hernández, Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research, ISABIAL–FISABIO Foundation, 03550 Alicante, Spain
2
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081661
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Coffee consumption is highly prevalent worldwide, and many studies have reported positive and inverse associations of coffee with many diseases. However, factors associated with coffee consumption remain poorly characterized in some populations, such as the elderly. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption in an elderly population in Spain. Data were analyzed from 903 participants, aged 65 years and above, from two population-based studies carried out in the Valencia region in Spain (Valencia Nutritional Survey (VNS) and European Eye Study (EUREYE-Study). Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption was assessed through two specific questions using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Information on personal characteristics, anthropometry and lifestyles was collected in personal interviews. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) and confidence intervals (95% CI). The prevalence of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption was 70%, 38% and 32%, respectively. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was positively associated with: Educational level, RRR = 1.63 (1.09–2.44); body mass index (≥30), RRR = 2.03 (1.05–3.95); tobacco smoking, RRR = 1.96 (1.13–3.39); alcohol intake [≥12 g/day category intake vs. no-alcohol intake, RRR = 6.25 (3.56–10.95)]; and energy intake (p < 0.05). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was negatively associated with: Age (≥75 years), RRR = 0.64 (0.43–0.94); and pre-existing hypertension, RRR = 0.67 (0.45–0.98). The consumption of decaffeinated coffee was positively associated with: Alcohol intake, RRR = 2.63 (1.19–4.64); pre-existing diabetes, RRR = 1.67 (1.06–2.62); and energy intake (p < 0.01). The consumption of coffee is high among elderly people in Spain. It is a novelty in this study with elderly population that tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking were the two main factors associated with higher coffee consumption. Self-reported hypertension was associated with a lower consumption of caffeinated coffee, and pre-existing diabetes was associated with a higher consumption of decaffeinated coffee. These associations should be taken into account when the health effects of coffee consumption are investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; caffeinated; decaffeinated; elderly; consumption; factors coffee; caffeinated; decaffeinated; elderly; consumption; factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Torres-Collado, L.; García-de la Hera, M.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Compañ-Gabucio, L.M.; Gonzalez-Palacios, S.; Vioque, J. Coffee Drinking and Associated Factors in an Elderly Population in Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1661.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop