Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review of Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Experiences and Access to Services among Refugee, Migrant and Displaced Girls and Young Women in Africa
Next Article in Special Issue
Human Papillomavirus-16 DNA Quantitation Differentiates High-Grade Anal Neoplasia
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of an Automated Phone Warning and Health Advisory System on Adaptation to High Heat Episodes and Health Services Use in Vulnerable Groups—Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cross-Talk between Wnt and Hh Signaling Pathways in the Pathology of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Open AccessArticle

Epidemiological Investigation of Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Pakistani Population

1
Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2
Department of Healthcare Biotechnology, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Departments of Oncology and of Biostatistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
4
Department of Surgery, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46000, Pakistan
5
Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented as poster in part at the Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Science 2017 Conference, Washington, DC, USA.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081582
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the possibility of it contributing to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have become important health concerns worldwide and in Pakistan, where the co-occurrence of T2DM and AD is becoming more frequent. To gain insights on this phenomenon, a cross-sectional study was initiated. We recruited and interviewed 820 research participants from four cities in Pakistan: 250 controls, 450 T2DM, 100 AD, and 20 with both diseases. Significant differences between groups were observed for age (p < 0.0001), urban vs. rural locality (p = 0.0472) and residing near industrial areas. The average HbA1c (%) level was 10.68 ± 2.34 in the T2DM group, and females had a lower level than males (p = 0.003). In the AD group, significant relationships existed between education and family history. Overall, the results suggest that T2DM and AD were associated with both socio-demographic and environmental factors in Pakistani participants. Detailed molecular investigations are underway in our laboratory to decipher the differential genetic pathways of the two diseases to address their increasing prevalence in this developing nation. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer’s disease; Pakistan; epidemiology type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer’s disease; Pakistan; epidemiology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Noreen, Z.; DeJesus, J.; Bhatti, A.; Loffredo, C.A.; John, P.; Khan, J.S.; Nunlee-Bland, G.; Ghosh, S. Epidemiological Investigation of Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Pakistani Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1582.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop