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Independent and Joint Contributions of Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Population Vulnerability to Mortality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area

1
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Department of Health and Human Services, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4
Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation, Detroit, MI 48216, USA
5
Green Door Initiative, Detroit, MI 48213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061209
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
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Abstract

Fine particulate matter is associated with adverse health outcomes. Exposure to fine particulate matter may disproportionately affect urban communities with larger numbers of vulnerable residents. We used multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the joint effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and population vulnerabilities on cardiopulmonary mortality (CPM). We estimated the health benefits of reductions in PM2.5 across census tracts in the Detroit metropolitan area with varying levels of population vulnerability, using cluster-specific odds ratios scaled to reflect PM2.5-attributable cardiopulmonary risk. PM2.5 and population vulnerability were independently associated with odds of CPM. Odds of CPM and the number of deaths attributable to PM2.5 were greatest in census tracts with both high PM2.5 exposures and population vulnerability. Reducing PM2.5 in census tracts with high PM2.5 would lead to an estimated 18% annual reduction in PM2.5-attributable CPM. Between 78–79% of those reductions in CPM would occur within census tracts with high population vulnerabilities. These health benefits of reductions in PM2.5 occurred at levels below current U.S. reference concentrations. Focusing efforts to reduce PM2.5 in the Detroit metropolitan area in census tracts with currently high levels would also lead to greater benefits for residents of census tracts with high population vulnerabilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particulate matter; cardiopulmonary risk; population vulnerability; cumulative risk fine particulate matter; cardiopulmonary risk; population vulnerability; cumulative risk
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Schulz, A.J.; Mentz, G.B.; Sampson, N.; Ward, M.; Dvonch, J.T.; De Majo, R.; Israel, B.A.; Reyes, A.G.; Wilkins, D. Independent and Joint Contributions of Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Population Vulnerability to Mortality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1209.

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