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Open AccessArticle

Development of a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) for Manganese and Comparison with Bone Manganese and Other Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

1
School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
3
Willis-Knighton Cancer Center, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA
4
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
5
School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou, China
6
Zunyi Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071341
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Manganese (Mn) exposure can result in parkinsonism. However, understanding of manganese neurotoxicity has been limited by the lack of a cumulative Mn biomarker. Therefore, the current goal was to develop Mn cumulative exposure indices (MnCEI), an established method to estimate cumulative exposure, and determine associations of MnCEI with blood Mn (BMn), fingernail Mn (FMn), and bone Mn (BnMn). We completed a cross-sectional study of 60 male Chinese workers. Self-reported occupational history was used to create two MnCEIs reflecting the previous 16 years (MnCEI16) and total work history (MnCEITOT). An in vivo neutron activation analysis system was used to quantify BnMn. BMn and FMn were measured using ICP-MS. Mean (standard deviation) MnCEITOT and MnCEI16 were 37.5 (22.0) and 25.0 (11.3), respectively. Median (interquartile range) BMn, FMn, and BnMn were 14.1 (4.0) μg/L, 13.5 (58.5) μg/g, and 2.6 (7.2) μg/g dry bone, respectively. MnCEI16 was significantly correlated with FMn (Spearman’s ρ = 0.44; p = 0.02), BnMn (ρ = 0.44; p < 0.01), and MnCEITOT (ρ = 0.44; p < 0.01). In adjusted regression models, MnCEI16 was significantly associated with BnMn (β = 0.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.001, 0.05); no other biomarkers were associated with MnCEI. This suggests BnMn may be a useful biomarker of the previous 16 years of Mn exposure, but larger studies are recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: manganese; cumulative exposure index; biomarkers; blood manganese; fingernail manganese; bone manganese; in vivo neutron activation analysis manganese; cumulative exposure index; biomarkers; blood manganese; fingernail manganese; bone manganese; in vivo neutron activation analysis
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Rolle-McFarland, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, J.; Mostafaei, F.; Zhou, Y.; Li, Y.; Fan, Q.; Zheng, W.; Nie, L.H.; Wells, E.M. Development of a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) for Manganese and Comparison with Bone Manganese and Other Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1341.

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