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Open AccessArticle

Predictors of Urinary Arsenic Levels among Postmenopausal Danish Women

1
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Analytical Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, 3040 East Cornwallis Road, PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194, USA
3
Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
4
Program in Public Health, Department of Family, Population, and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, 101 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
5
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071340
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Arsenic is a risk factor for several noncommunicable diseases, even at low doses. Urinary arsenic (UAs) concentration is a good biomarker for internal dose, and demographic, dietary, and lifestyle factors are proposed predictors in nonoccupationally exposed populations. However, most predictor studies are limited in terms of size and number of predictors. We investigated demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants of UAs concentrations in 744 postmenopausal Danish women who had UAs measurements and questionnaire data on potential predictors. UAs concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and determinants of the concentration were investigated using univariate and multivariate regression models. We used a forward selection procedure for model optimization. In all models, fish, alcohol, and poultry intake were associated with higher UAs concentration, and tap water, fruit, potato, and dairy intake with lower concentration. A forward regression model explained 35% (R2) of the variation in concentrations. Age, smoking, education, and area of residence did not predict concentration. The results were relatively robust across sensitivity analyses. The study suggested that UAs concentration in postmenopausal women was primarily determined by dietary factors, with fish consumption showing the strongest direct association. However, the majority of variation in UAs concentration in this study population is still unexplained. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; determinants; predictors; diet; lifestyle; demography arsenic; determinants; predictors; diet; lifestyle; demography
MDPI and ACS Style

Roswall, N.; Hvidtfeldt, U.A.; Harrington, J.; Levine, K.E.; Sørensen, M.; Tjønneland, A.; Meliker, J.R.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Predictors of Urinary Arsenic Levels among Postmenopausal Danish Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1340.

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