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Open AccessArticle

Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India

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Department of Public Health and Environment, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
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Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health, Health Systems and Policy (HSP): Medicines Focusing Antibiotics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden
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International Centre for Health Research, Ujjain Charitable Trust Hospital and Research Centre, Ujjain 456001, India
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Department of Pathology, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
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HLL Biotech Ltd., Integrated Vaccines Complex, Melaripakkam (Post), Thirukalukundram Taluk, Chengalpattu 603001, India
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Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
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Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, Varese 21100, Italy
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Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Environmental Medicine, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship.
Author was employed with Department of Microbiology, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India at the time of study.
§
Shared last authorship.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061281
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Objectives: To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India. Methods: Water and sediment samples were collected from seven selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods. High-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of antibiotic residues. In river water and sediment samples, antibiotic resistance and multidrug resistance patterns of isolated E. coli to 17 antibiotics were tested and genes coding for resistance and phylogenetic groups were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher tests were applied to determine seasonal variation. Results: In river water, seasonal variation was significantly associated with various water quality parameters, presence of sulfamethoxazole residues, bacteria resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tigecycline, multidrug resistance and CTX-M-1 gene. The majority of the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates from river water and sediment in all different seasons belonged to phylogenetic group A or B1. Conclusions: Antibiotic pollution, resistance and resistance genes in the Kshipra River showed significant seasonal variation. Guidelines and regulatory standards are needed to control environmental dissemination of these “pollutants” in this holy river. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic residues; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic resistance genes; seasonal variation; Kshipra River; India antibiotic residues; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic resistance genes; seasonal variation; Kshipra River; India
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diwan, V.; Hanna, N.; Purohit, M.; Chandran, S.; Riggi, E.; Parashar, V.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Stålsby Lundborg, C. Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1281.

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