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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061266

Vibrio Species in Wastewater Final Effluents and Receiving Watershed in South Africa: Implications for Public Health

1
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
3
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Eastern Cape, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa are obliged to make provision for wastewater effluent quality management, with the aim of securing the integrity of the surrounding watersheds and environments. The Department of Water Affairs has documented regulatory parameters that have, over the years, served as a guideline for quality monitoring/management purposes. However, these guidelines have not been regularly updated and this may have contributed to some of the water quality anomalies. Studies have shown that promoting the monitoring of the current routinely monitored parameters (both microbial and physicochemical) may not be sufficient. Organisms causing illnesses or even outbreaks, such as Vibrio pathogens with their characteristic environmental resilience, are not included in the guidelines. In South Africa, studies that have been conducted on the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in domestic and wastewater effluent have made it apparent that these pathogens should also be monitored. The importance of effective wastewater management as one of the key aspects towards protecting surrounding environments and receiving watersheds, as well as protecting public health, is highlighted in this review. Emphasis on the significance of the Vibrio pathogen in wastewater is a particular focus. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater effluent; Vibrio pathogens; wastewater monitoring; public health wastewater effluent; Vibrio pathogens; wastewater monitoring; public health
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Okeyo, A.N.; Nontongana, N.; Fadare, T.O.; Okoh, A.I. Vibrio Species in Wastewater Final Effluents and Receiving Watershed in South Africa: Implications for Public Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1266.

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