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Open AccessArticle

Vitamins A and E during Pregnancy and Allergy Symptoms in an Early Childhood—Lack of Association with Tobacco Smoke Exposure

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Monitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Pediatrics and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, 90-329 Lodz, Poland
5
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647 Lodz, Poland
6
Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital—Research Institute change into Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061245
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and development of allergic diseases in their offspring. The aim of the study was to determine plasma vitamins A and E concentration in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in cord blood and to search for a relationship with allergy in up to 2-year-old children who were prenatally exposed or not exposed to tobacco smoke. The study participants included 252 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Vitamin concentrations were measured using the HPLC-UV method, smoking status—as saliva cotinine level using the HPLC-MS/MS technique. Children’s health status was assessed using a questionnaire and pediatricians/allergists examination. Cord plasma vitamin concentrations were significantly lower than their levels in maternal plasma in the 1sttrimester and at delivery (p < 0.001). Significantly higher concentrations of vitamin E have been shown to occur during the 1st trimester of pregnancy in plasma of the women who have actively/passively smoked cigarettes compared to the non-smokers (p < 0.02). Multivariate analysis with inclusion of a variety of confounding factors have not indicated any statistically significant associations between β-carotene, vitamins A and E and the risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis and wheezing in their children up to 2 years of age. The interaction between smoking during pregnancy and vitamins levels on the risk of allergy was not statistically significant (p < 0.4). The relationship between plasma concentration of vitamins A and E, and the risk of allergy in their young children has not been demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamins A, E; β-carotene; pregnancy; smoking; dermal, respiratory and food allergy, children vitamins A, E; β-carotene; pregnancy; smoking; dermal, respiratory and food allergy, children
MDPI and ACS Style

Gromadzinska, J.; Polanska, K.; Kozlowska, L.; Mikolajewska, K.; Stelmach, I.; Jerzynska, J.; Stelmach, W.; Grzesiak, M.; Hanke, W.; Wasowicz, W. Vitamins A and E during Pregnancy and Allergy Symptoms in an Early Childhood—Lack of Association with Tobacco Smoke Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1245.

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