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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061250

Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

1
School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu 21300, Malaysia
2
Department of Reproductive Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
3
Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
5
Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
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Abstract

The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; adipokines; adiponectin; leptin; breast milk; obesity; infant adiposity pregnancy; adipokines; adiponectin; leptin; breast milk; obesity; infant adiposity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mohamad, M.; Loy, S.L.; Lim, P.Y.; Wang, Y.; Soo, K.L.; Mohamed, H.J.J. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1250.

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