Next Article in Journal
Implementation of Active Workstations in University Libraries—A Comparison of Portable Pedal Exercise Machines and Standing Desks
Next Article in Special Issue
Deriving A Drinking Water Guideline for A Non-Carcinogenic Contaminant: The Case of Manganese
Previous Article in Journal
Source Identification and Apportionment of Trace Elements in Soils in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region
Open AccessArticle

Burden of Common Childhood Diseases in Relation to Improved Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) among Nigerian Children

School of Politics and Public Administration, Southwest University of Political Science & Law, Chongqing 401120, China
School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
Health Information Center, Chongqing 401120, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1241;
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
Having access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities constitute a key component of healthy living and quality of life. Prolonged exposure to insanitary living conditions can significantly enhance the burden of infectious diseases among children and affect nutritional status and growth. In this study we examined the prevalence of some common infectious diseases/disease symptoms of childhood among under-five children in Nigeria, and the association between the occurrence of these diseases with household’s access to WASH facilities. Types of diseases used as outcome variables included diarrheal, and acute respiratory infections (fever and cough). Access to WASH facilities were defined by WHO classification. The association between diarrhoea, fever and chronic cough with sanitation, and hygiene was analyzed by logistic regression techniques. Results showed that the prevalence of diarrhoea, fever and cough was respectively 10.5% (95% CI = 9.7–2.0), 13.4% (95% CI = 11.9–14.8), and 10.4% (95% CI = 9.2–11.5). In the regression analysis, children in the households that lacked all three types of facilities were found to have respectively 1.32 [AOR = 1.329, 95% CI = 1.046–1.947], 1.24 [AOR = 1.242, 95% CI = 1.050–1.468] and 1.43 [AOR = 1.432, 95% CI = 1.113–2.902] times higher odds of suffering from diarrhea, fever and cough. The study concludes that unimproved WASH conditions is an important contributor to ARIs and diarrheal morbidities among Nigerian children. In light of these findings, it is recommended that programs targeting to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality from common infectious diseases should leverage equitable provision of WASH interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhea; fever; cough; Nigeria; infant health diarrhea; fever; cough; Nigeria; infant health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

He, Z.; Bishwajit, G.; Zou, D.; Yaya, S.; Cheng, Z.; Zhou, Y. Burden of Common Childhood Diseases in Relation to Improved Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) among Nigerian Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1241.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop