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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1293;

Deriving A Drinking Water Guideline for A Non-Carcinogenic Contaminant: The Case of Manganese

Direction de la Santé Environnementale et de la Toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, 945 Avenue Wolfe, Québec, QC G1V 5B3, Canada
Department of Environmental and Occupational health, École de Santé Publique, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculté de Médecine, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, 1050 Avenue de la Médecine Local 00241, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
PDF [420 KB, uploaded 21 June 2018]


Manganese is a natural contaminant of water sources. It is an essential oligo-element, which may exert toxicity at high doses, particularly via inhalation. Its toxicity by the oral route is less known, but epidemiological and experimental studies tend to support its neurodevelopmental toxicity in infants and children. This paper describes the method used by a middle-size public health institution to derive a Drinking Water Guideline (DWG) for manganese. After reviewing the work done by major public health institutions, authors confirmed the use of experimental data to derive a point-of-departure (POD) of 25 mg of manganese/kg/day, based on neurodevelopmental effects on pup rats. Then, a total uncertainty factor of 450 was applied to calculate a Toxicological Reference Value (TRV) of 55 µg/kg/day. The final DWG proposed for manganese is 60 µg/L and is based on a relative source contribution (RSC) of water of 20% and an infant drinking scenario of 182 mL/kg of body weight (BW) of water (95th percentile of the ingestion rate distribution for 0–6 months). Despite its limitations, e.g., starting with the work done by other agencies, such an approach demonstrates in a transparent way the rationale and challenging choices made by regulators when deriving a DWG. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; inorganic manganese; health-based guideline; infants drinking water; inorganic manganese; health-based guideline; infants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Valcke, M.; Bourgault, M.-H.; Haddad, S.; Bouchard, M.; Gauvin, D.; Levallois, P. Deriving A Drinking Water Guideline for A Non-Carcinogenic Contaminant: The Case of Manganese. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1293.

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