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Open AccessArticle

Paraquat Exposure of Pregnant Women and Neonates in Agricultural Areas in Thailand

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Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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Faculty of Public Health, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang Sub-District, Kantarawichai, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
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Department of Public Health, Zuckerberg College of Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061163
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
This study aimed to assess paraquat concentrations in the urine of women at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum and in the meconium of neonates. In all, 79 pregnant women were recruited from three hospitals located in agricultural areas in Thailand. The subjects were interviewed about personal characteristics, agricultural activities and pesticide use patterns. Paraquat was analyzed in urine and meconium using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The geometric mean (GSD) of urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum were 2.04 (4.22), 2.06 (5.04) and 2.42 (5.33) ng/mL, respectively. The urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum between agriculturist and non-agriculturist were not significantly different (p = 0.632, p = 0.915, p = 0.57 respectively). The geometric mean (GSD) of paraquat concentration in the meconium was 33.31 (4.59) ng/g. The factors predicting paraquat exposures among pregnant women and neonates included working outside, living near farmland, having family members who work on a farm, drinking well water and using herbicides or paraquat. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; paraquat; pregnant women; meconium; Thailand; herbicide; prenatal exposure agriculture; paraquat; pregnant women; meconium; Thailand; herbicide; prenatal exposure
MDPI and ACS Style

Konthonbut, P.; Kongtip, P.; Nankongnab, N.; Tipayamongkholgul, M.; Yoosook, W.; Woskie, S. Paraquat Exposure of Pregnant Women and Neonates in Agricultural Areas in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1163.

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