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Open AccessArticle

ETS Exposure and PAH Body Burden in Nonsmoking Italian Adults

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan and Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Public Health, Local Health Unit, 41121 Modena, Italy
3
Environmental Health Reference Centre, Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention of Emilia Romagna, 41121 Modena, Italy
4
Italian National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology and Disease Registries, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061156
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Exposure and Effects)
Active smoking is associated with increased body burden of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); the aim of this study was to assess whether environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) increases the internal dose of PAHs. In 344 nonsmoking Italian adults, out of 497 individuals selected as representative of the population of the town of Modena, ETS exposure was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire and by the measurement of urinary cotinine (COT-U). PAH exposure was assessed by the measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) and of ten urinary PAHs. In all subjects, median (5th–95th percentile) COT-U was 0.47 (<0.1–3.91) µg/L. While 58 subjects reported to be ETS exposed (ETSQUEST), 38 individuals were identified as ETS exposed on the basis of a COT-U value of 1.78 (90% confidence interval 1.75–1.80) µg/L, previously derived as an upper reference value in not ETS exposed Italian adults (ETSCOT). Median COT-U levels were 1.38 (<0.1–9.06) and 3.63 (1.80–17.39) µg/L in ETSQUEST and in ETSCOT subjects, respectively. Significant correlations between COT-U and 1-OHPYR, and urinary anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene were found among all subjects. Significantly higher levels of 1-OHPYR, and urinary fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene were found in ETSCOT individuals. The results of multiple linear regression analyses, taking into consideration diet and other sources of PAHs exposures such as the residence area/characteristics and traffic, confirmed that 1-OHPYR and urinary fluorene were affected by ETS exposure, even if ETS played a minor role. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; urinary cotinine; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; human biomonitoring; 1-hydroxypyrene environmental tobacco smoke; urinary cotinine; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; human biomonitoring; 1-hydroxypyrene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campo, L.; Polledri, E.; Bechtold, P.; Gatti, G.; Quattrini, G.; Olgiati, L.; Romolo, M.; Ranzi, A.; Lauriola, P.; Carrozzi, G.; Fustinoni, S. ETS Exposure and PAH Body Burden in Nonsmoking Italian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061156

AMA Style

Campo L, Polledri E, Bechtold P, Gatti G, Quattrini G, Olgiati L, Romolo M, Ranzi A, Lauriola P, Carrozzi G, Fustinoni S. ETS Exposure and PAH Body Burden in Nonsmoking Italian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(6):1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061156

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Quattrini, Giulia; Olgiati, Luca; Romolo, Michael; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Carrozzi, Giuliano; Fustinoni, Silvia. 2018. "ETS Exposure and PAH Body Burden in Nonsmoking Italian Adults" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 6: 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061156

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