Next Article in Journal
Lead Exposure and Associated Risk Factors among New Migrant Children Arriving in Greece
Next Article in Special Issue
Lung Cancer Risk and Low (≤50 μg/L) Drinking Water Arsenic Levels for US Counties (2009–2013)—A Negative Association
Previous Article in Journal
Governance on the Drug Supply Chain via Gcoin Blockchain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Arsenic and Other Elemental Concentrations in Mushrooms from Bangladesh: Health Risks
Open AccessArticle

Risk and Benefit of Different Cooking Methods on Essential Elements and Arsenic in Rice

1
School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK
2
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061056
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic Contamination, Bioavailability and Public Health)
Use of excess water in cooking of rice is a well-studied short-term arsenic removal technique. However, the outcome on the nutritional content of rice is not well addressed. We determined the benefit of different cooking techniques on arsenic removal and the associated risk of losing the essential elements in rice. Overall, we found 4.5%, 30%, and 44% decrease in the arsenic content of rice when cooked with rice-to-water ratios of 1:3, 1:6 (p = 0.004), and 1:10 (parboiling; p < 0.0001), respectively. All the essential elements (except iron, selenium, and copper) incurred a significant loss when rice was cooked using the 1:6 technique: potassium (50%), nickel (44.6%), molybdenum (38.5%), magnesium (22.4%), cobalt (21.2%), manganese (16.5%), calcium (14.5%), selenium (12%), iron (8.2%), zinc (7.7%), and copper (0.2%) and further reduction was observed on parboiling, except for iron. For the same cooking method (1:6), percentage contribution to the recommended daily intake (RDI) of essential elements was highest for molybdenum (154.7%), followed by manganese (34.5%), copper (33.4%), selenium (13.1%), nickel (12.4%), zinc (10%), magnesium (8%), iron (6.3%), potassium (1.8%), and calcium (0.5%). Hence, cooked rice as a staple is a poor source for essential elements and thus micronutrients. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; arsenic; essential elements; cooking; recommended daily intake rice; arsenic; essential elements; cooking; recommended daily intake
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mwale, T.; Rahman, M.M.; Mondal, D. Risk and Benefit of Different Cooking Methods on Essential Elements and Arsenic in Rice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1056.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop