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Open AccessArticle

Lead Exposure and Associated Risk Factors among New Migrant Children Arriving in Greece

1
Pediatric Clinic, “P. & A. Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Nursing, Thivon & Levadeias str., Athens 11527, Greece
2
Department of Nursing Research, Onassis Cardiosurgical Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, Athens 17674, Greece
3
Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economy & Business, 76 Patission str., Athens 10434, Greece
4
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 M. Asias str., Athens 11527, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061057
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Background: This study aims to assess lead exposure and associated risk factors among newly arrived migrant (M) (immigrant and refugees) children in Greece and a matched control of native (N) children. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary children’s hospital. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 598 children (M/N: 349/249) with a mean age of 6.96 years old (range 1–14, SD 3.76) were enrolled. Blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 0.7 to 21 μg/dL in migrant and from 0.4 to 10 μg/dL in native Greek children. Elevated BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL were detected in 27.7% of migrants and 1.2% of natives (p < 0.001). A significant association was found between EBLLs and childrens’ age (≤5 years) (OR: 1.8, p-value 0.02) and EBLLs with Asian origin (OR: 3.63, p-value 0.023). Conclusion: New migrant children presented with increased BLLs when compared to their age- and sex-matched controls. Younger age and Asian origin were significant risk factors associated with elevated BLLs among children. Early screening, secondary prevention, and regular follow-up could prove useful in this vulnerable population. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood lead levels; children; immigrants; refugees blood lead levels; children; immigrants; refugees
MDPI and ACS Style

Tanaka, M.; Petsios, K.; Dikalioti, S.K.; Poulopoulou, S.; Matziou, V.; Theocharis, S.; Pavlopoulou, I.D. Lead Exposure and Associated Risk Factors among New Migrant Children Arriving in Greece. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1057.

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