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Open AccessArticle

A Cross-Sectional Examination of Physical Activity Levels and Their Socio-Demographic Determinants in Southern Tanzania

1
Ifakara Health Institute, Kiko Avenue, Dar es Salaam P.O. Box 78373, Tanzania
2
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
3
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
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Athena Institute, Vrije Universiteit/Free University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Shree Hindu Mandal Hospital, Chusi St, Dar es Salaam P.O. Box 581, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061054
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Physical Activity and Public Health)
Physical activity is essential for healthy aging. Evidence suggests that vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) may be more beneficial than moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA). We examined physical activity levels (MPA, VPA and total physical activity), and their socio-demographic determinants in 2311 participants (15–93 years; 68% women) of the MZIMA Open Community Cohort, who had complete relevant data. Physical activity levels were estimated in minutes per week across three domains—work, leisure and transport. We created three outcome variables: low MPA (<150 min per week of MPA), low VPA (<75 min per week of VPA) and insufficient physical activity (IPA: <150 min per week of total physical activity) and applied sample-weighted multivariable logistic regression to assess associations with potential socio-demographic determinants. Prevalence of IPA, low MPA and low VPA were 25%, 26% and 65% respectively. IPA and low MPA were correlated (Spearman R = 0.98; p < 0.001). Work, leisure and transport contributed 54%, 25% and 21% to total physical activity respectively. IPA and low VPA were significantly associated with female sex, lower education, non-manual occupation and frequent fruit consumption. We observed significant differences by sex (Pheterogeneity < 0.001), on the associations between education and IPA, and between age, occupation and low VPA. In conclusion, low levels of VPA, which were more pronounced in women, support the monitoring and promotion of VPA alongside overall physical activity. Leisure-related activities should also be promoted towards gains in vigorous-intensity and total physical activity in this setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; vigorous physical activity; determinants; leisure; Tanzania; cross-sectional study; adults physical activity; vigorous physical activity; determinants; leisure; Tanzania; cross-sectional study; adults
MDPI and ACS Style

Msambichaka, B.; Abdul, R.; Abdulla, S.; Klatser, P.; Tanner, M.; Kaushik, R.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Geubbels, E.; Eze, I.C. A Cross-Sectional Examination of Physical Activity Levels and Their Socio-Demographic Determinants in Southern Tanzania. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1054.

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