Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment—A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi’an
School of Geography and tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
SNNU-JSU Joint Research Center for Nanoenvironment Science and Health, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030394
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Environment Science and Health)
Taking Yanta District in Xi’an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi’an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi’an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower.