Next Article in Journal
Effects of Air Pollution Control on Urban Development Quality in Chinese Cities Based on Spatial Durbin Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Concentrations, Distribution, Sources and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Soils from Wuhan, Central China
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparison of Stress Perception in International and Local First Semester Medical Students Using Psychometric, Psychophysiological, and Humoral Methods
Previous Article in Special Issue
Relationships between Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Pregnant Women in the Second and Third Trimester
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122821

Relative Density of Away from Home Food Establishments and Food Spend for 24,047 Households in England: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
2
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99164, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1353 KB, uploaded 11 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Eating away from home is a risk factor for poor diet quality and obesity. With an ever-increasing proportion of household food spend directed toward eating out, the proliferation of these food establishments may contribute to their use, a potential precursor to less healthy food choices and low overall diet quality. However few studies are conducted at the national level and across a range of away from home food sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the density of away from home food establishments (e.g., restaurants, fast food outlets and cafés) and household spend on away from home food within a nationally representative sample for England, UK. A cross-sectional analysis of data from Wave 1 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey (n = 24,047 adults aged ≥19y) was conducted. Exposure was characterised as the density of away from home food establishments to all other food sources within 1 mile of the home, divided into quintiles (Q1 as lowest exposure and Q5 as highest exposure). The primary outcome included households with a high away from home equivalised monthly food spend (≥25% of total food spend). Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between away from home food establishment exposure and high away from home food spend. Away from home food establishment density was significantly associated with a greater odds of high monthly food spend (Q3: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.30; Q4: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.18, 1.43; and Q5: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.68) with attenuation after controlling for known socioeconomic confounders (Q4: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.25; and Q5: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.30) compared to those least exposed (Q1). Those most exposed to away from home food establishments had a 16% greater odds of allocating more than 25% of household food spend on away from home food sources. This study provides one of the first analyses at the national level to examine the role of the local food environment in relation to household food spend, a potential precursor to diet quality and health. View Full-Text
Keywords: food availability; eating away from home; household food spending food availability; eating away from home; household food spending
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Penney, T.L.; Burgoine, T.; Monsivais, P. Relative Density of Away from Home Food Establishments and Food Spend for 24,047 Households in England: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2821.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top