Next Article in Journal
Hydrolysis and Photolysis Kinetics, and Identification of Degradation Products of the Novel Bactericide 2-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-5-(Methylsulfonyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazole in Water
Next Article in Special Issue
Environmental, Individual and Personal Goal Influences on Older Adults’ Walking in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area
Previous Article in Journal
A Lot of People Are Struggling Privately. They Don’t Know Where to Go or They’re Not Sure of What to Do”: Frontline Service Provider Perspectives of the Nature of Household Food Insecurity in Scotland
Previous Article in Special Issue
Perceived Environmental, Individual and Social Factors of Long-Distance Collective Walking in Cities
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122740

Geographic Imputation of Missing Activity Space Data from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) GPS Positions

1
Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
2
Center for Behavioral Health Research, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3268 KB, uploaded 6 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

This research presents a pilot study to develop and compare methods of geographic imputation for estimating the location of missing activity space data collected using geographic ecological momentary assessment (GEMA). As a demonstration, we use data from a previously published analysis of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage, captured at the U.S. Census Bureau tract level, on momentary psychological stress among a sample of 137 urban adolescents. We investigate the impact of listwise deletion on model results and test two geographic imputation techniques adapted for activity space data from hot deck and centroid imputation approaches. Our results indicate that listwise deletion can bias estimates of place effects on health, and that these impacts are mitigated by the use of geographic imputation, particularly regarding inflation of the standard errors. These geographic imputation techniques may be extended in future research by incorporating approaches from the non-spatial imputation literature as well as from conventional geographic imputation and spatial interpolation research that focus on non-activity space data. View Full-Text
Keywords: missing data; spatial data; imputation; geographic imputation; activity space; ecological momentary assessment; EMA missing data; spatial data; imputation; geographic imputation; activity space; ecological momentary assessment; EMA
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mennis, J.; Mason, M.; Coffman, D.L.; Henry, K. Geographic Imputation of Missing Activity Space Data from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) GPS Positions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2740.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top