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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122676

Development and Validation of a Simple Convenience Store SHELF Audit

1
Department of Public Health Food Studies and Nutrition, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
2
Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
3
Biology Department, Utica College, 1600 Burrstone Rd., Utica, NY, 13502, USA
4
School of Food and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5735, USA
5
Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
6
Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
7
Division of Animal & Nutritional Sciences, School of Agriculture, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
8
Department of Molecular, Cellular & Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
9
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
10
Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA
11
Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
12
Health and Nutritional Sciences Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
13
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
14
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
15
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
16
Department of Nutrition, Dietetics & Hospitality Management, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Food Behaviour)
Full-Text   |   PDF [343 KB, uploaded 28 November 2018]

Abstract

Background This paper describes the development, reliability, and convergent validity of a practical tool—the Convenience Store Supportive Healthy Environment for Life-Promoting Food (SHELF) Audit. Methods Audit items included: a variety of fresh, processed, and frozen fruits and vegetables; low-fat dairy products; healthy staples and frozen meals; healthy food incentive programs; items sold in check-out areas; portion/cup sizes; and pricing. Each audit item was scored using a five-point semantic-differential scale (1 = provides little or no support for healthful foods to 5 = provides high support for healthful foods). Convergent validity was examined by comparing the SHELF audit to Ghirardelli et al. and Laska et al. store audits. Statistical analysis included: Factor analysis, ANOVA, and Spearman correlations. Results SHELF included three factors: a Fruits/Vegetables scale (eight items, α = 0.79; total potential points = 34); a Healthy Foods scale (four items, α = 0.72; total potential points = 16); and a Supports scale (four items, α = 0.685; total potential points = 16). Only 6% of the 124 convenience stores assessed scored in the most healthful range (46–66). The assessed drug stores (n = 15) scored higher than convenience stores (n = 81) on the Healthy Foods and Supports scales but not the Fruits/Vegetables scale. The SHELF sub-scores were highly correlated with other audit tools indicating convergent validity. Conclusion The SHELF convenience store audit is a valid, reliable tool for assessing the degree to which convenience stores support healthfulness regarding Fruits/Vegetables, Healthy Foods, and Supports for choosing healthy. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental audit; fruit vegetable assessment; consumer food environment environmental audit; fruit vegetable assessment; consumer food environment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Horacek, T.M.; Yildirim, E.D.; Kelly, E.; White, A.A.; Shelnutt, K.P.; Riggsbee, K.; Olfert, M.D.; Morrell, J.S.; Mathews, A.E.; Mosby, T.T.; Kidd, T.; Kattelmann, K.; Greene, G.; Franzen-Castle, L.; Colby, S.; Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Brown, O. Development and Validation of a Simple Convenience Store SHELF Audit. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2676.

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