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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122675

Recreational Use of Spa Thermal Waters: Criticisms and Perspectives for Innovative Treatments

Public Health Unit, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome 00135, Italy
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Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recreational Water Illnesses)
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Abstract

Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: recreational water; spa; thermal water; innovative treatment recreational water; spa; thermal water; innovative treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Valeriani, F.; Margarucci, L.M.; Romano Spica, V. Recreational Use of Spa Thermal Waters: Criticisms and Perspectives for Innovative Treatments. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2675.

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