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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2675;

Recreational Use of Spa Thermal Waters: Criticisms and Perspectives for Innovative Treatments

Public Health Unit, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome 00135, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recreational Water Illnesses)
PDF [3810 KB, uploaded 30 November 2018]


Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: recreational water; spa; thermal water; innovative treatment recreational water; spa; thermal water; innovative treatment

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Valeriani, F.; Margarucci, L.M.; Romano Spica, V. Recreational Use of Spa Thermal Waters: Criticisms and Perspectives for Innovative Treatments. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2675.

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