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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122617

A Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment and Hierarchical Management System for Urban Lake Health: A Case Study on the Lakes in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China

1
Hubei Research Center of Water Affair, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan 430073, China
2
School of Information and Safety Engineering, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
3
School of Resources and Environment, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
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Abstract

Environmental assessment of eutrophication or heavy metals in urban lakes is an important reference for identifying the pollution degree and formulating pollution prevention strategies. At present, the most research on lake health states is often evaluated from a single angle for toxic metals pollution or eutrophication using the standard comparison method for both, the comprehensive trophic level index (TLI), and the health risk assessment for toxic metals. Moreover, the above deterministic methods probably lead to biased or unreliable assessment due to the randomness and fuzziness in environment system caused by natural change and human activities. In this paper, a fuzzy comprehensive lake health assessment method (FCLHAM) was established to evaluate comprehensive lake health states more comprehensively and accurately, which integrates quantitative eutrophication and health risk considerations. To test and verify FCLHAM, 21 lakes, scientifically selected from the total 143 lakes in the Chinese Wuhan city as study case, were investigated and analyzed for their state of eutrophication and the health risk posed by heavy metals. According to the FCLHAM, the average comprehensive lake health state decreased in the sequence of L20 (considerate risk level) > L1–L17, L19, L21 (moderate risk level) > L18 (low risk level). Based on the result, lakes were classified into three categories: general management (L18), enhanced management (L1–L17, L19, L21), and priority management (L20). If the 143 lakes in Wuhan were classified by the “area-region-function” classification, they would be assigned to the same category as the representative lakes of the same type. At this point, we will attribute all of Wuhan’s lakes to the three types. Depending on the characteristics of each type, a targeted approach to different types of management for each type of lake is a more efficient way to manage many of Wuhan’s lakes. This management mode also serves as an effective reference for the environmental management of urban lakes both at home and abroad. In other words, according to the FCLHAM, a hierarchical management system based on lake characteristics classification was obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban lake; comprehensive nutrition status Index; heavy metals; health risk; fuzzy comprehensive method urban lake; comprehensive nutrition status Index; heavy metals; health risk; fuzzy comprehensive method
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Wang, T.; Yan, J.; Ma, J.; Li, F.; Liu, C.; Cai, Y.; Chen, S.; Zeng, J.; Qi, Y. A Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment and Hierarchical Management System for Urban Lake Health: A Case Study on the Lakes in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2617.

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