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Biofouling Mitigation by Chloramination during Forward Osmosis Filtration of Wastewater

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
2
R&D Division, Kyowakiden Industry Co., Ltd., 10-2 Kawaguchi-Machi, Nagasaki 852-8108, Japan
3
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0135, Japan
4
Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102124
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Pre-concentration is essential for energy and resource recovery from municipal wastewater. The potential of forward osmosis (FO) membranes to pre-concentrate wastewater for subsequent biogas production has been demonstrated, although biofouling has also emerged as a prominent challenge. This study, using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane, shows that chloramination of wastewater in the feed solution at 3–8 mg/L residual monochloramine significantly reduces membrane biofouling. During a 96-h pre-concentration, flux in the chloraminated FO system decreased by only 6% and this flux decline is mostly attributed to the increase in salinity (or osmotic pressure) of the feed due to pre-concentration. In contrast, flux in the non-chloraminated FO system dropped by 35% under the same experimental conditions. When the feed was chloraminated, the number of bacterial particles deposited on the membrane surface was significantly lower compared to a non-chloraminated wastewater feed. This study demonstrated, for the first time, the potential of chloramination to inhibit bacteria growth and consequently biofouling during pre-concentration of wastewater using a FO membrane. View Full-Text
Keywords: chloramine; forward osmosis; membrane fouling; pre-concentration; wastewater treatment chloramine; forward osmosis; membrane fouling; pre-concentration; wastewater treatment
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Fujioka, T.; Nguyen, K.H.; Hoang, A.T.; Ueyama, T.; Yasui, H.; Terashima, M.; Nghiem, L.D. Biofouling Mitigation by Chloramination during Forward Osmosis Filtration of Wastewater. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2124.

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