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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010142

Problematic Smartphone Use: Investigating Contemporary Experiences Using a Convergent Design

1
International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
2
Computing and Technology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
3
Addictive and Compulsive Behaviour Lab., Institute for Health and Behaviour, Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE), University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, L-4365 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
4
Addiction Division, Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Geneva, 44041 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction: Health and Educational Effects)
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Abstract

Internet-enabled smartphones are increasingly ubiquitous in the Western world. Research suggests a number of problems can result from mobile phone overuse, including dependence, dangerous and prohibited use. For over a decade, this has been measured by the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPU-Q). Given the rapid developments in mobile technologies, changes of use patterns and possible problematic and addictive use, the aim of the present study was to investigate and validate an updated contemporary version of the PMPU-Q (PMPU-Q-R). A mixed methods convergent design was employed, including a psychometric survey (N = 512) alongside qualitative focus groups (N = 21), to elicit experiences and perceptions of problematic smartphone use. The results suggest the PMPU-Q-R factor structure can be updated to include smartphone dependence, dangerous driving, and antisocial smartphone use factors. Theories of problematic mobile phone use require consideration of the ubiquity and indispensability of smartphones in the present day and age, particularly regarding use whilst driving and in social interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: smartphone; problematic mobile phone use; convergent design; focus group; survey smartphone; problematic mobile phone use; convergent design; focus group; survey
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Kuss, D.J.; Harkin, L.; Kanjo, E.; Billieux, J. Problematic Smartphone Use: Investigating Contemporary Experiences Using a Convergent Design. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 142.

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