Next Article in Journal
A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities
Previous Article in Journal
Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism for the Uptake of Fluoride Ions by Reed Residues
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010100

Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

1
Department of Public Health, Food Studies and Nutrition, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
2
Division of Epidemiology and Health Index, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si 28160, Korea
3
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam 31499, Korea
4
Department of Social Welfare, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [463 KB, uploaded 9 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8%) out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72) after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of dietary guidelines targeting older Korean adults to reduce mild cognitive impairments. Future prospective cohort studies are warranted to examine the effect of the seafood and vegetable dietary pattern on reducing mild cognitive impairment to prove the cause–effect relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive function; dietary patterns; reduced rank regression (RRR); Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE); older Korean adults cognitive function; dietary patterns; reduced rank regression (RRR); Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE); older Korean adults
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, D.; Lee, K.W.; Kim, M.-H.; Kim, H.J.; An, Y.S.; Chung, H.-K. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 100.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top